Developing social presence in online teacher education programs: A review of literature
Abstract: The present study explores how social presence has been studied in online teacher education programs. It adopted a literature review research design, and the collected articles were analyzed using pattern coding. The results highlighted that the Community of Inquiry model was the most widely used theoretical model by the researchers when they incorporated the concept of social presence into their studies. There was no consensus in terms of the most effective delivery mode (i.e., face -to-face or online) to develop social presence. Multiple platforms/strategies and instructor presence were significant in improving social presence. These findings, while providing insights into the relevance of social presence in online teacher education programs, can also be considered recommendations to enhance the quality of such programs.