A Fact File of Flexible Learning in Night Programs in Japan
Abstract: This paper presents a data-driven exploratory research on the state of night programs in higher education in Japan. Considering the gradual decrease in the number of newborns (NIPSSR, 2014), higher education in Japan is now faced with the serious problem of a decrease in the number of university enrollments in the near future (MEXT, 2017d). This includes night programs which take up less than one percent of the total enrollment (MEXT, 2017a) and has rarely been paid attention to. For this reason, this paper analyzes the most relevant data regarding this issue. The paper provides concise and the most recent information on 1) the general profile of night programs in higher education available up to December 2018 and 2) the configuration of ‘flexible learning’ in relation to night programs as a case study. The paper discusses a potential weakness in the import process of the concept ‘flexibility’ into our country, thereby, there are hopes of a higher and smoother insertion of the local contexts to the world state of learning.