Surfing the Open Oceans of Flipped Learning: A Comprehensive Student-Centred Model to Implement Flipped Classrooms
Abstract: Flipped Learning (FL) has become popular in higher education in recent years. Although several theoretical frameworks exist in the literature, the field is in its embryonic stages. Research on FL lacks systematic approaches to design, implement, and evaluate interventions. This paper proposes an evidence-based framework to implement FL in the classroom using the analogy of surfing. Designing FL without a robust framework is akin to entering an unknown open ocean to surf without knowing the conditions, such as the swell, water temperature, wind, and tides. To successfully surf, knowledge of these parameters is essential for deciding what type and size of board and wetsuit is most suitable. Implementing FL without a pedagogical approach, a planning stage, or instructional strategies is like asking students to surf an unknown open ocean. Not knowing how to promote student self-regulation, online content enablers, use of technology, or the communication of FL to students can cause the intervention to flounder. Moreover, implementing FL without evaluation is like getting stuck in a rip that pushes the surfer away from the shore. This paper uses the surfing analogy to introduce a practical framework for implementing FL in the classroom.