Online Learning Success The Moderating Role of Hardiness, Resilience, Grit and Growth Mindset A Theoretical Overview
Abstract: A review of current educational literature shows a continued focus on online learning pedagogical philosophies and perspectives as a significant area of research in Canada. While the expectations and demands placed on online learners are continually increasing (Kizilcec & Halawa, 2015), the needs of online learners are also changing (Dabbagh & Bannan-Ritland, 2005), leading to attrition rates up to 20% higher than face-to-face learning (Angelino, Williams & Natvig, 2007) and reflecting a growing need for a greater understanding of the online learning environments that support or undermine the development of psychological qualities that lead to learning success. This requires educators to develop, implement and evaluate innovative and contemporary approaches to online teaching and learning that foster hardiness, resilience, grit and growth mindset. This paper provides a theoretical examination of academic hardiness, resilience, grit and growth mindset as they relate to online learning. It further explores the specific role that they may have as character traits in learning in general, and, more importantly, their relevance to online learning. The relationship between hardiness, resilience, grit, growth mindset and student success in online learning environments is examined, and a rationale for the development of hardiness, resilience, grit and growth mindset as significant factors contributing to success in online learning environments is considered.