Dimensions and Applications of Personalized Learning in Workforce Training and Development Programs: A Delphi Study
Abstract: Current research in K-12 and Higher Education suggests that personalized learning may be a promising strategy for offering students a sense of ownership over their learning process supporting the development of new skillsets, scaffolding lifelong learning practices, reducing time spent on learning tasks, and managing information overload. Despite the promise of the K-12 and Higher Education findings, limited research has been conducted on the use of personalized learning strategies in Workforce Training and Development Programs. Additionally, a literature review revealed that definitions and implementations of personalized learning vary considerably based on what is being personalized (distribution channel, interface, content, functionality), who conducts the personalization (user, system, blended format), how the (user, system, blended format) personalizes, and the type of learner data collected. Using the Delphi method, this research sought expert feedback in identifying the variables, characterizations, priorities, and applications of personalized learning in Workforce Training and Development Programs. Three rounds of iterative surveys revealed that experts conceive of personalized learning as a flexible and learner-driven strategy facilitated by content and social interactions. A 5 Level Personalized Learning Framework building upon Moore’s Theory of Interaction is proposed to structure personalized learning for Workforce Training and Development Programs.