Emotional costs among students with learning disabilities and ADHD in online learning during the Covid-19 epidemic
Abstract: This study examined the emotional costs and well-being of students with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) facing online learning, during the Covid-19 epidemic. The study was conducted among 237 students in Israel during June-July 2020. Students with LD and / or ADHD suffer from significantly higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression compared to students without LD and / or ADHD and demonstrated significantly lower well-being compared to students without LD and / or ADHD. There were no significant differences between those groups in emotional costs and well-being if the students had previous experience in online learning before this epidemic. We assume that previous experience enables adaptation and acquisition of tools for online learning that contribute to reducing feelings of stress, anxiety and depression and increase the likelihood of perseverance and graduation among LD and / or ADHD students. Intervention programs should include 3 levels: Lecturers, Students, and the academic institutions.