The Relationship between Out-of-Class Strategies and In-Class Strategies in a Flipped Classroom
Abstract: In recent years, the concept of the flipped classroom has emerged and become widespread. However, few studies on the flipped classroom have investigated students’ learning, distinguishing between out-of-class and in-class learning phases. To reveal what kind of support should be provided in each learning phase, we investigated what in-class learning strategies could be used based on the frequency of students’ out-of-class learning, and which out-of-class learning strategies affect which in-class learning strategies. The results demonstrated that students who frequently study during out-of-class time used more in-class strategies, while students often use Elaboration and Meta-Cognition strategy during in-class time. They also revealed that the use of out-of-class higher-order cognitive strategies affected the use of in-class higher-order cognitive strategies, while the sole use of out-of-class lower-order learning strategies might not deepen students’ understanding during in-class time.