How does principal e-leadership affect ICT transformation in K-12 education: A competitive structural equation model
Abstract: Within the context of educational transformation and innovation, the use of ICT needs to be embedded in process of school change. E-leadership plays a vital role in this change. The study used structural equation modelling approach (SEM) and statistical software SPSS19.0 and Mplus7.4 to analyze the questionnaire survey data collected from 1128 Shanghai teachers. Results supported that from teacher perspective, ICT transformation is a complex process including social (government ICT policy), organizational (school leadership and ICT implementation strategies) and personal factors (teachers’ attitudes towards ICT, changes in pedagogy and learning). Specifically, school leadership and government ICT policy had a direct effect on ICT implementation strategies in school. And ICT implementation strategies in school had a direct effect on pedagogical changes and a indirect effect through pedagogical changes on changes in student learning. Teachers’ attitudes towards ICT had the strongest direct effect on pedagogical changes.